It is a genre of ballads, originally sung by the members of the Gondhal Gondhia caste, which is a Dalit community. Post-Shivaji, all castes adopted it. The powada ballads were centred on wars. The singers painted a very vivid picture of different battles. This genre must have originated in the times when internecine battles and attacks by invaders were common and it had become a bounden duty of a poet to inspire his patron to fight with all his might. But Mahatma Phule used powada for spreading awareness among the masses.
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Panchal Dnyaneshwar Anantrao M. English M. Sushiladevi Senior College, Latur. Abstract: In There is certainly the existence of relationship between folklore, culture and anguage. This relationship is based on the fact that folklore is expressed by means of language and that te both language and folklore are set in the culture of the people who speak the former and produce the latter.
In addition, both reflect the culture they are set in. It has significant influence upon Marathi Literature. The performance of Shahir has greatly influenced on Marathi history, religion, culture, society and literature. The study of Powada, as a folk at literature, shows the references of Hindu religion, Marathi culture and society.
They have the power to replicate the valour of the mighty warriors on the battlefield. But the history of Marathi Shahiri is primarily noted from the times of Chhatrapati Shivaji. Along with might and power, it also brought beauty in its descriptions, thus proving its imagination and strength.
Shahiri: Shahiri is the folk literature written to perform. Shahir is the person who performs the art in front of the people. Linguists are of the opinion that the word Shahir is derived from Arabic. There are two sects within the Shahir: one Kalgi and the other Tura. One can experience the split between these two troupes when the question-answer sessions begin. All shahirs invoke the fifty-two Veer to defeat their adversaries. After invoking the veer, the Shahir tries to In defeat the Shahir from the opposite team.
The Veer or beer as it is sometimes known, are the yaksha. It is said that this wise yaksha asks difficult questions and confuse the adversary.
These features of Folk literature, we can find in Powada. Research Methodology: at Researcher has adopted contextual research methodology as a tool to study the Powada. The aim of the present research is to study powada in the light of folk literature.
It is sung loud to stress a point and give na inspiration to the masses. Musical accompaniments include the percussion rhythms of a Daf or Dholak. There are some powadas which were written on Gods and giving spiritual message. Most of the powadas of Honaji Nal and Parshram are written on religion and gives spiritual message. Shahirs belong to different communities, castes and religions. They differ from other Marathi poets based on the path they choose of active participation in society, as opposed to devotional or intellectual re poets.
First period : Shivaji rule to Peshwa rule. Second period : British rule- prior to L: Independence. Third period onwards : Post independence. From Agindas to present Shahirs, everyone has used historical elements to tell the great deeds of Marathi Mavale. Such and many other brief sayings and idioms come in the day to day language. But in Peshawe era the form of valour changed into romance. Many Shahirs wrote romantic lyrics for Lawani also. From then onwards, Shahiri came into its own full swing and provided great inspiration to the Mavale to fight for the land.
Shahir through powadas spread the thought of Hindavi Swarajya, the culture, customs and traditions of Hindu religion. In Shivaji Maharaj na era Bhakti Movement was in its golden days. The countrymen of Maharashtra were reading this literature. Shahir Honaji was greatly influenced by then Marathi saints.
We can see the references in his powadas. Shrihari anila sadhuchya kanti II Dohni n mhanvya kalpanti. Marathi Dekhane, p. Through these lines he says about the significant place of fe Saints in human life. Saints are the messengers of God. They have indebted human beings. For this he reminds them saints. Shahir tried to give the message of spirituality. He born re in and was very famous then time.
Such puzzles help Shahir to use in Kalgi-Tura, one kind of debate. When used as a count noun "a culture", is the set of customs, traditions and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. In the humanities, one sense of culture, as an attribute of the individual, has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication, in the arts, sciences, education, or manners. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies.
In this sense Maharashtra is Hindu dominant state. The Hindu religion has greatly influenced folk literature of Maharashtra. Folk song, the best studied is the traditional ballad. Among the most common types of narrative folklore in powada are folktales folk tales. A folktale is a story that forms part of an oral tradition, and does not have a single, In identifiable author. The stories are passed down from one generation to the next and over time become expanded and reshaped with each retelling.
Folktales often reflect the values te and customs of the culture from which they come. They have been used to teach character traits. Customs can be used to reinforce cultural identity. The kings or politicians used the rn powada as an instrument to spread the culture and the thought of Hindavi Swarajya.
The instruments which were in the use also show the contemporary culture of the society. That will lead to the trouble and destruction in life. Following such straightway is better than such shortcuts. Shahirs in modern world has tried to make awareness about the contemporary social re customs. Mahatma Phule and Annabhau Sathe are such great writers who wrote on the contemporary topic. Mahatma Fule wrote on prevailed untouchability in that time. Shahir nc greatly contributed to spread this movement by social exhortation or awareness.
The people come to know about this movement. Shahirs has also helped Bal Gangadhar Tilak to spread the patriotism and unity among Indians. These things were greatly contributed in Indain freedom movement. Due to immense popularity, it was used to influence the L: mass opinion. The central conflict here would be to see appropriation of an iconic leader like Shivaji, by shahirs belonging to two different caste groups.
The contested lineage of Shivaji was manifested through an interesting binary i. Brahmins and non- brahmins turned to the figure of Shivaji in seeking an interpretation of the past. Each and every society io around the world evolves its own proper systems of communication to execute the function of societal transformation which ultimately gave birth to various performing arts.
In this process, tradition and customs play essential role to create the artistic processes-the na indigenous tools of human communication. In the medieval era there were no forms of communication. A traditional form which though did not belong to any specific caste or religious group, has been adapted, rehashed and used to accentuate identities and L: ideologies of different shades time. While this was taking place, Marathi shahiri did not get the social, cultural and political backing that any art form requires for its growth and prosperity.
The study of powada greatly helps to understand the religion and culture of Maharashtra state. P References: Dekhane, Ramchandra. Lage Shahiri Garjaya. Pune: Padmgandh Publication, Hinge, Jivangatha. Pune: Hinge Folk Art Publication, Loksahitya ani Shodh. Nanded: Sangat Prakashan, Mawale, Hemant. Vandito Tuz Shahira.
Hinge, Kisanrao. Pune: Shahiri Folktale Academy,
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marathi powada lyrics on shivaji maharaj