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Jor tlrc experiment. Description oJ the apparatus: Giue a short description oJ tlrc apparatrs. Giue a neat diagram on the btank page to the leJt. Pictures that are purelg ilLustratiue shoul. Wheneuer necessarA, ttrcg shoutd. Grapl,s slwuld. The grophs should haoe speci,fi. Unless tlrcre is a reason not to, the graph scate sltouldbe cltoosen so that the plotted" readings are spread. Calculations shorrld be shousn on the blank page to the leJt.
Final result of measwrement should be written at the end in proper trnits. A slide callipers consists of a nickel prated steer scare M edge and Fig. In order to deriue -fiill benefiL from tle laboralory work, it is essentfall that the student must knou his uork Jor a particular dag beJoreltand and must careJutlg prepare the metter at ltomeb. Conting to tlrc Laboratory and. Hence preparation at ltome wiLL matce one grasp ttrc idea a.
Ttrc reading mag be forgotten in a short timed. Euery arithmeticat figure used in recording an obseruation must be writLen uery distinctlg so that no doubt mag arise as to its identitg at the time oJ cahculation.
Tlte calculatians made to arriue at the fnal restilt must be shoun. This mag be done on the leJt page oJ the Laboratory note-boolc- c. Tlrc obseruations must be recorded as soon as theg are This is the principal scale.
A jaw A is fixed at right angres at one end of the scale. The other jaw B can slide over Lhe scale and can be fixed at any position by means of a screw T. This movable jaw carries with it Lwo vernier scales v, one on each side, corresponding to the two main scares. The i. Under this condition, the zero o[ the vernier shoulcl coincide with the zero of the main scale.
With such a correcf instrument, when the jaws are separated, the distance belween the zero of the vernier scale and the zero of the main scale is equal to the distance between Lheir edges. The body, of which the rength is to be nteasured, is placed between the two jaws so as to exactly fit Practical Physics l5 in. The readings of the main and vernier scales gives the Iength of the object.
In such a case, the actual reading of the scale does not give the true length of the body. There may be two types of zero errors: a The zero of the vernier may be in advance of the zero line of the main scale by an amount x mm. On placing the body between the jaws if the scale reading be y mm, then the actual length o[ the body is A - x mm. Inside and Outside Vernier with Depth Gauge. Some instruments are provided with arrangement to measure the internal diameter and the depth of a cylinder Fig.
Instrumental Error: When the vernier zero! Through a stlrllllrl Aroove cut along the entire length of the back side ol llrc bar, a uniform steel rod can slide. The other end of llre rod ls rigidly fXed to the vernier attachment and the lrttgth of the rod is such that when vernier reading is zero, lhe end of the rod coincides with the end of the scale bar.
To measure the external diameter of a cylinder, rod or rlng, the lower jaws are used and the procedure is the same as that of the ordinary callipers. To measure the internal diameter of a cylinder, pipe or ring the upper jaws are inserted inside the cylinders, etc. To measure the depth of a hollow body, the instrument is put in a vertical position and allowed to rest at the end of the scale on the rim of the body.
The movable jaw is slided downward till the end of the rod touches the inside bottom of the body. Then the usual reading is taken which gives the depth of the body. The instrumental error, if any, must be taken into consideration in all the measurements.
Vernier constant. Vernier constant is a meosure oJ the difference in length oJ a scate diuision and a Dernier diuiston in the Lmit oJ the scale druision. Vcrnier callipcrs. The three distances marked d are equal and are read off from the vernier scalc. OI cm. Such an instrument is provided with two lower and two upper jaws. The sunl o[ the main scale reading and the fractional parL taking account of the zero error , gives the length of the rod. Take at least five readings and arrange in a tabular form.
Apparatus : A slide callipers and a rod. Description of the Slide Callipers : See the description bf Fig.
Dagul Determining the value of g by means of a compound pendulum. Student practical worksheets — physics. I look for a PDF Ebook about:. Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 2.
PRACTICAL PHYSICS: for degree students (B.Sc. Pass, Honours and Engineering Students)
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