This virus is similar to canine parvovirus. This disease is sometimes referred to as feline infectious enteritis or feline distemper. FPV is highly contagious to all domestic and wild members of the Felidae family and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Virus is shed in all body secretions, but the most common form of transmission of this disease is by fecal-oral transmission.
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More Sharing Options Vaccination is a critical tool for preventing feline panleukopenia. The vaccine starts working immediately, and can provide immunity within hours to days. This can be lifesaving in environments where infectious disease exposure is common.
Modified live vaccines provide quick onset of immunity. Injectable subcutaneous FVRCP vaccines instead of or in addition to intranasal are best able to provide panleukopenia protection in contaminated environments. In adults, vaccinate once on entry and again in weeks. There is a small risk when pregnant queens are vaccinated that the vaccine may induce abortion or abnormalities in kittens.
This risk must be balanced against the life-threatening risk of contracting panleukopenia. Learn More Causes, Clinical Signs and Transmission of Panleukopenia Sanitation Sanitation is the root of a healthy animal shelter environment and a key component in maintaining the health of the animals housed within.
Proper sanitation involves thorough cleaning before appropriate disinfecting. Without proper cleaning and disinfecting, disease can quickly spread.
Because panleukopenia is a non-enveloped virus, it is hardy and resists some commonly applied shelter disinfectants. It is therefore important to have a regular sanitation protocol that includes products and processes that kill this virus. Sanitation Tips Regular handwashing is the single most important disease prevention tool in a shelter.
Disposable latex gloves changed between animals and thorough handwashing when hands are soiled are key elements of hand sanitation. The order of cleaning and care of animals should move from healthy kittens and queens to healthy adult animals to unhealthy animals, ideally with dedicated staff handling any sick animals.
Follow a written sanitation protocol for regularly cleaning and disinfecting the entire facility, not just the kennel cages. Understand the disinfectant you are using well! Choose a disinfectant that has efficacy against panleukopenia for regular use in the shelter cat areas. There are several common choices, including bleach, potassium peroxymonosulfate, and accelerated hydrogen peroxide.
Unfortunately, many quaternary ammonium products commonly used in shelters are labeled as parvocidal, but multiple studies over the past several years have proven they are not reliably effective.
Each area should have its own dedicated equipment and supplies to limit fomite transmission. Launder clothing, bedding, towels, etc, in hot water, a good quality detergent and bleach.
Severely soiled items should be discarded. Segregation Placing animals into smaller groups in separate housing areas of the shelter based on species, health, age and other factors helps maintain optimum animal health during a shelter stay. Segregation Tips Kittens and queens with litters should ideally be housed in a separate area Do not mix kittens from one litter in with another Quarantine exposed and in-contact animals for two weeks if possible Treatment of Panleukopenia in the Shelter Panleukopenia can have a high mortality rate despite early or aggressive therapy.
However, some animals do survive, particularly adult cats. Because panleukopenia is a virus, there is no specific cure, so treatment consists of providing supportive care.
This includes fluid therapy to correct dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities, antibiotics to fight off secondary bacterial infections, and control of the vomiting and diarrhea. Decisions to attempt treatment in the shelter should be thought out carefully.
Consideration should be given to the following: Shelters are not hospitals and seldom have the resources to provide proper isolation and treatment. It takes several days of intensive care therapy to treat, with overnight monitoring and care often required. Sufficient recovery to reach adoptability may take two to three weeks or longer.
The ability of the virus to persist in the environment long-term endangers the lives of both current and future residents. Recovered cats and kittens should still be isolated for at least 14 days post recovery from clinical signs because they may still continue to shed virus. Repeated laboratory testing for the presence of panleukopenia virus may also be helpful in documenting when a cat or kitten is no longer shedding virus that poses a risk to other animals.
If a strict isolation area managed by staff skilled in maintaining the integrity of an isolation protocol is not available, animals with panleukopenia virus should be removed from the facility for treatment or euthanasia to curtail their suffering and minimize disease spread.
There are several treatment options for feline Panleukopenia, which is also known as distemper. Feline Distemper is a highly aggressive virus, so the sooner the infection is treated, the better chances are of pulling through. Feline Panleukopenia Explained Feline Panleukopenia is a condition caused by a highly stable virus. The virus can survive for months if left at room temperature. It also withstands freezing procedures and disinfectants.
Prevention, Management & Treatment of Feline Panleukopenia
At a glance About: Feline panleukopenia is a life-threatening viral infection caused by the feline parvovirus. Transmission: Cats become infected by exposure to infective feces, urine, saliva, via fomites objects such as food bowls and bedding, or during pregnancy. Symptoms: Loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, listlessness, fever, and dehydration. Treatment: There are no medications to kill the virus, treatment is supportive, which may include blood transfusions, fluid therapy, nutritional support and in some cases, antibiotics may be given. What is feline panleukopenia?