On the Word A Word is the smallest part of an ordered sentence. The proper noun, as a species, is subordinate to the noun. A Noun is a declinable part of speech, signifying something either concrete or abstract concrete, as stone; abstract, as education ; common or proper common, as man, horse; proper, as Socrates, Plato. There are three Genders, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter. Some add to these two more, the common and the epicene—common, as man, horse; epicene, as swallow, eagle. There are two Species of nouns, the primitive and the derivative.
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BC by someone who is otherwise scarcely known. According the encyclopaedia of the Suda 10th cent. Whether Dionysius alone is responsible for the text is not and cannot be known.
I imagine that the history of the transmission of the text is in vol. I, but I have no easy access to this book. There is no shortage of scholia notes on the work by various later writers, and these are published by Bekker.
Liddell, R. Scott and H. My feeling about this pamphlet is that it was intended as a convenient manual for those trying to earn a living as a teacher of Greek to those who needed to improve their writing skills.
For example, in 3rd cent. BC Egypt many Egyptians had become familiar with Greek, even to the point where they were able to write letters in, but the spelling and morphology are often not optimal. Greek was the language of administration and probably had a certain prestige, in much the same way as Norman French did in England for a couple of centuries after the Norman Conquest.
The book has 25 sections, each with a heading of its own. Section 14 on the The Noun is by far the longest. In the hope that this little work may be read by those unfamiliar with Greek I attach the following list of approximately equivalent graphemes. The equivalent English vowels are really not much more than approximations.
Grammar Grammar is the practical3 knowledge of the language used, for the most part, by verse and prose writers. There are six parts to it. First, reading aloud according to prosody. Third, the useful rendering of words and their meanings. Fourth, the discovery of etymology. Fifth, account of grammatical paradigms. Sixth, appraisal of written works, which is the finest of all parts in the system. Reading Reading is the fluent rendering of poetry and prose.
It must be done with expression, prosody and measure. From the expression we see the worth of the piece, from the prosody the skill of the reader , from the measure the mind of the writer.
Thus, our reading of tragedy is heroic, comedy conversational, elegies light, epic emphatic, lyric harmonious, dirges subdued and mournful. For non-observance of these destroys the virtues of the poets and makes the skill of reader ludicrous. Accent Accent is the harmonious resonance of the voice: rising with the acute, even with the grave and broken with the circumflex.
Punctuation There are three punctuation marks: full stop, medial stop and comma. Difference between a full stop and comma The difference is time. The distance conveyed by the full stop is great, by the comma quite small. Rhapsody Rhapsody is the part of the poem that involves a certain subject.
Element7 There are twenty-four letters, from alpha to omega. Letters are said to be formed by lines and scratches. There are two long vowels, h and w, two short, e and o, three with two quantities, a, i, u, elongated and short. There are six diphthongs: ai, au, ei, eu, oi, ou.
They are called consonants because they themselves have no voice but are voiced only in combination with the vowels. There are eight semi-vowels: z, x, y, l, m, n, r, s. They are called semi-vowels because they are less well-sounded than the vowels and consist of the sounds mu and si.
There are nine mute consonants, b, g, d, q, k, p, r, f, c. They are called mute, because they are more ill-sounding than the others, as we say that the ill- sounding tragic performer is mute. Three of these are unaspirated, k, p, t and three are aspirated, c, f, q and three are intermediate, b, g, d, and they are called intermediate because they are more aspirated than the unaspirated and less aspirated than the aspirated. So, b is between p and f, g between k and c, d between t and q. Aspirated elements correspond to unaspirated, f to p; c to k; q to t.
Four are unchangeable: l, m, n, r, and are so called because they do not change in the future of the verb or in noun declensions. They are also called liquid. Long syllable A long syllable occurs in eight ways, three by nature, five by position.
Common syllable11 A common vowel occurs in three ways: either when it ends in a long vowel and is followed by a vowel, or when a short or shortened vowel is preceded by two consonants, of which the second is unchanging and the first is voiceless, or when, being short, it concludes a part of 11 Three lines of Homer are quoted to illustrate these phenomena.
I have not included them here 6 speech12 and is followed by a vowel. Word A word is the smallest part of the syntactically constructed sentence. Sentence A sentence is the combination of words in prose and verse that exhibits a complete thought. There are eight parts of speech: noun, verb, participle, article, pronoun, adverb and conjunction. The common noun is subsumed under the noun. There are three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter. There are two classes: primary and derived.
Patronymic means properly what comes from a father, improperly from the forebears, such as when Peleides and Aiacides are used of Achilles.
There are three classes of masculine patronymic ending in -dhj, -wn, -adioj, such as Atreides, Atreion and Hyrrhadios, a form used by the Aeolians, son of Pittakos. There are also three feminine classes ending in -ij, as in Priamis, aj as in Pelias and nh as in Adrastine. Homer does not use the patronymic scheme from mothers, but later writers do. The superlative is the one used in a comparison by by placing one above many. There are three numbers: singular, dual and plural. These are the following classes of noun: proper, common, adjective, relative, quasi-relative, homonym, synonym, pheronym, dionym, eponym, ethnic, interrogative, undetermined, anaphoric, which is also called analogous, demonstrative and correlative, collective, distributive, inclusive, onomatopoetic, general, special, ordinal, numeral, partaking of, independent.
Proper: signifies individual substance, such as Homer and Socrates. Adjective: signifies that which is added to the proper and common as a homonym and exhibits praise or censure. Synonym: in different nouns it portrays the same thing, such as dagger, sword etc. This does not imply reciprocity, for an Alexander is not necessarily a Paris.
Ethnic: shows ethnicity such as Phrygian, Galatian. Ordinal: indicates order, such as first, second, third.
Numeral: indicates number, such as one, two, three. Verb The verb is a word without cases and indicates tense, person and and number, presenting activity or passivity. It has eight characteristics: moods, dispositions, classes, forms, numbers, persons, conjugations. There are five moods: indicative, imperative, optative, subjunctive and infinitive. The first is the point from which the utterance starts, the second at which it is directed and the third what it is about.
There are three tenses: present, past and future. Of these the past has four forms: imperfect, perfect, past perfect, aorist. Among these there are three relationships: present to imperfect, pefect to past perfect, aorist to future. Conjugation Conjugation is the sequential inflection of verbs.
There are six conjugations of barytone 25 verbs. The fifth is introduced by the four unchanging ones, l, m. Circumflex verbs There are three conjugations of circumflex verbs.
Verbs ending in mi Of the verbs ending in mi there are four conjugations. Participle A participle is word that partakes of the property of nouns and verbs. Its endings are those verbs and nouns, both persons and declensions, Article The article is a declinable part of the sense, prefixed and suffixed to the declension of nouns.
It has three properties: gender, number and declension. Pronoun A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun and indicates defined persons. It has six properties: person, gender, number, declension, form and type.
There are two forms: simple and complex. Preposition A preposition27 is a word placed before all parts of the sentence in composition and syntax. Adverb An adverb is an indeclinable part of the sentence said of a verb or added to a verb. Conjunction A conjunction is a word that connects thought with order and fills out the empty spaces of the expression.
The Art of Grammar
BC by someone who is otherwise scarcely known. According the encyclopaedia of the Suda 10th cent. Whether Dionysius alone is responsible for the text is not and cannot be known. I imagine that the history of the transmission of the text is in vol. I, but I have no easy access to this book. There is no shortage of scholia notes on the work by various later writers, and these are published by Bekker. Liddell, R.
The grammar of Dionysios Thrax
His work, the Art of Grammar Gr. If this work is really by Dionysius Thrax has been doubted by medieval commentators and grammarians. On the other side, the fact that grammarians of the stature of Apollonius Dyscolus and Herodian knew this work in its present form, defends its authenticity, however it might have been altered in later times. From a Hamburg manuscript J. Fabricius published it in his Bibliotheca Graeca, VI. Armenian translation, including five additional chapters.