Papyrus Oxyrhynchus , a second-century manuscript of De Corona; Papyrus Oxyrhynchus , a second- or third-century manuscript of De Corona. Authorship[ edit ] The authorship of many of the works attributed to Demosthenes have been disputed. Most of the speeches given by Apollodoros , for instance, are widely considered to have been written by Apollodoros himself, though the first speech Against Stephanos has been considered authentic by many scholars. The third speech Against Aphobos , for instance, is now generally accepted to be authentic.
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Fourth Philippic Current location in this text. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. Full search options are on the right side and top of the page. If the question before us were a new one, men of Athens , I should have waited until most of the regular speakers had delivered their opinions, and if satisfied with any of their proposals, I should have remained silent, but if not satisfied, I should then have tried to express my own views.
Since, however, it is our fortune to be still debating a point on which they have often spoken before, I can safely claim your indulgence if I am the first to rise and address you. For if in the past their advice had been sound, there would be no need for deliberation today. Demosthenes with an English translation by J.
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The Public Orations of Demosthenes/Philippic I
His strong desire to sue his guardian, Aphobus, in the courts, coupled with a delicate physique that prevented him from receiving the customary Greek gymnastic education, led him to train himself as an orator. He also studied legal rhetoric. In his Parallel Lives Plutarch , the Greek historian and biographer, relates that Demosthenes built an underground study where he exercised his voice, shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. He also practiced speaking before a large mirror.
Introduction[ edit ] Philip became King of Macedonia in B. Being in great difficulties both from external enemies and from internal division, he made peace with the Athenians, who were supporting the pretensions of Argaeus to the throne, in the hope of recovering by agreement with Argaeus the colony of Amphipolis on the Strymon, which they had lost in Philip acknowledged the title of Athens to Amphipolis, and sent home the Athenian prisoners, whom he had captured among the supporters of Argaeus, without ransom. The Athenians, however, neglected to garrison Amphipolis. In the year in which Athens temporarily recovered her hold over Euboea, by compelling the Thebans to evacuate the island , Philip carried on a successful campaign against the Paeonian and Illyrian tribes, who were standing enemies of Macedonia. For the next three years Athens was kept occupied by the war with her allies, and Philip saw his opportunity.
Early years and personal life[ edit ] Family and personal life[ edit ] Bust of Demosthenes British Museum , London , Roman copy of a Greek original sculpted by Polyeuktos. Although his father provided for him well, his legal guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance. In Parallel Lives, Plutarch states that Demosthenes built an underground study where he practised speaking and shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. Plutarch also states that he had "an inarticulate and stammering pronunciation " that he got rid of by speaking with pebbles in his mouth and by repeating verses when running or out of breath. He also practised speaking in front of a large mirror.