Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins. Acupuncture specialists and surgeons in Russia and then in other countries created a valuable and new style in acupuncture. This method often is effective and impressive. A particular advantage of catgut Embedding, for example, instead of regular evaluation sessions at 2 or 3 times a week, can visited once a month. Catgut Embedding method also called Embedding of thread, we use of resorbable surgical thread.

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Received May 8; Accepted Jul This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The aim of this review is to estimate the effectiveness and safety of ACE on obesity.

Improvement rate, reduction of body weight and body mass index BMI , and so forth were analyzed. Mean values of weight loss by ACE were 1. Mean of BMI reduced to 0. Less adverse effects were reported. Pooled outcomes presented a tendency of equal or superior effects to other interventions and fewer side effects. Future high quality trials with rigorous design and positive FDA approved drug as control are urgent to assess the effect of ACE for obesity. Introduction Obesity, a common kind of metabolic disease, is characterized by redundant accumulation and abnormal distribution of fat.

With transformation of modern lifestyle and diet structure, such as more intake of refined food and less physical activity, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing amazingly in either developed countries or developing ones.

Particularly in the last decade, the growth rate of obesity has ascended exponentially. According to WHO report in [ 6 ], obesity was deemed one of the top ten risk factors for many diseases like hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many cancers, and nearly 2.

Studies [ 7 , 8 ] by working group on obesity in China WGOC revealed the morbidity rate of hypertension was 2. Specifically, central obesity seemed more dangerous than systematic obesity, and even with mild obesity the morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease increased when the waist circumference got bigger [ 9 — 11 ]. So, health problem is superior to aesthetics in obesity, and it urges finding a nice treatment. Although the etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, many clinical practice guidelines have been developed worldwide by relative medical and health organizations based on the existing evidences.

Besides, Canada, China, and Europe have also published their prevention guides, which promoted the concern and management of obesity [ 4 , 13 , 14 ]. Obviously, the therapies of obesity are much similar in all the guidelines, consisting of the lifestyle modification of diet and exercise, drug, surgery, and complication therapy.

However, Cochrane system review [ 17 ] indicated that, due to insufficient longer-term evidences, the short-term adjustment of food consumption and movement was difficult to achieve sustained weight reduction. The change of diet and activity habit shaped for many years was difficult to adhere to for a long time, and this led to the failure of weight loss for weight regain [ 18 ].

So far, American FDA approved only 4 short-time use drugs as phentermine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine, and benzphetamine and 3 medium- and long-time use ones as orlistat, lorcaserin, and phentermine plus topiramate-ER. Besides, there were so many obvious side effects like headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, insomnia, dry mouth, taste alteration, diarrhea, constipation, hypoglycemia, and change of cognition that the harm brought about by them was more than obesity itself, and these drugs frequently failed in decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and medical costs in the long run [ 19 ].

The efficacy and safety were still under suspicion, and it may be related to the ambiguity of obesity pathogenesis that the drug action was hard to selectively cut down the adipose tissue and there was no harm of health at molecular level [ 20 ].

The operative treatment of obesity was intended for obese adult with serious complication specifically caused by the excess of adipose cell like metabolic syndrome, and the surgical sites were mostly restricted at stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and gallbladder to decrease or constrain the function of digestive system [ 21 ].

Considering the side reaction and that there is no benefit to cardiovascular risks in antiobesity drugs and the high risk and narrow use of surgery, more clinicians have applied complementary and alternative therapy including TCM to lose weight [ 22 ].

A study showed there were articles of weight loss using TCM in CNKI database by , and most of the methods were herbs and acupuncture [ 23 ]. Chinese herb was used to strengthen spleen and qi and have bowel movement, and radix astragali, bighead Atractylodes rhizome, and rhubarb were the most used ones [ 24 ].

However, the side effects like lack of strength and anorexia were difficult to avoid [ 25 ]. RCTs [ 26 — 30 ] manifested acupuncture was useful to reduce BMI, waist, and abdomen circumference and improve the quality of life, featuring less side effects, multifarious intervention means like ACE, auricular needle, EA, hand acupuncture, auricular plaster therapy, and so on.

A review [ 31 ] of RCTs indicated acupuncture seemed more effective comparing to western antiobesity drugs; the mean of weight reduction was 0. However, owing to the long-term adherence of antiweight drugs, the conflict of time between treatment and daily work, and high expense of treating, more patients abandoned therapy. Hence, the method of ACE, developed from TCM acupuncture with a certain section of absorbable catgut suture implanted in acupoint, characterized by easy operation, durable and strong stimulation, and long interval between each treatment, has broadly been used to lose weight in China.

Despite lack of effectiveness evaluated and normative management plan, most Chinese TCM hospitals and weight loss institutions have conducted ACE to treat obesity based on their own experience. To estimate the safety and effect appeared to be especially important, and it was also necessary to provide a treatment suggestion based on current evidences. The primary aims of this systematic review are to estimate the effectiveness and safety of ACE on obesity and formulate a treatment suggestion.

Methods 2. Study Selection Inclusive and Exclusive Criteria 2. Types of Study To evaluate the curative effects of ACE on obesity and weight loss, this review was confined to RCTs comparing ACE with a control group, which contained drug, no treatment, placebo, diet and exercise therapy, and other types of acupuncture like MA, EA, ear auricular pressure treatment, acupoint pressure, and so forth.

Besides, Chinese and English were the limitation of language. The animal mechanism studies, case reports, self-pre- and postcontrol, or non-RCTs were excluded. Types of Participants It included the participants with no limitation of age, gender, and type of overweight or obesity, including children obesity and abdominal obesity.

The definitions of obesity or overweight using BMI, body weight, or percentage of weight excess compared with ideal weight were included. Patients with severe medical conditions, who are pregnant, and with drug-induced obesity were excluded.

Studies with cointerventions of drugs and other types of acupuncture such as MA, EA, massage, pressure, and laser acupuncture were included if the same intervention as control and other cointerventions were excluded. The control interventions with other types of acupuncture, drugs, no treatment wait-listed or treatment as usual , placebo no catgut implanted , and diet or physical activity therapy were included.

Studies to compare the effect of difference of catgut length, operation, or acupoint prescription were excluded. Secondary outcomes included the side effects, such as bleeding, serious discomfort, subcutaneous nodules, and infection. Treatment suggestions including frequency of acupoint prescription, frequency of treatment time, and course were also shown according all the included RCTs.

The item of RCT was also chosen in corresponding databases and the languages of Chinese and English were restricted. Data Extraction and Quality Assessment Each literature of title and abstract was scanned by two reviewers Taipin Guo and Sun Tianxiao who have been trained and gained certifications in Chinese Cochrane Centre. All relevant articles of full text were investigated.

The extracted information included descriptions of studies, characteristics of participants, interventions of both observation group and control group, adverse effect, and quality.

Risk of bias was used to evaluate the quality of study. The decision of risk was made by two reviewers. If inconsistent results appeared, the final decisions were made by all the authors. For missing or ambiguous data, we tried to contact the author as possible, and for duplicate publication we only selected the original.

Forest plot was used to illustrate the relative strength of curative effect. Meanwhile, according to Cochrane handbook suggestion, the funnel plot was pictured to describe publication bias visually as the number of trials was more than There was no publication bias as a symmetric inverted funnel while the publication bias or a systematic difference of small or big sample size effects existed as an asymmetric funnel.

The calculation of mean differences of changes in body weight and BMI between ACE and control groups was also conducted. Results 3. Study Description and Participants Our initial search identified probable articles from the databases, of which were reserved with excluded for duplication.

Finally, 43 studies with participants met the inclusion criteria and were included to this systematic review with 2 nonrandomizations and 2 redundant publications eliminated by full text view. The articles were filtrated as shown in Figure 1.


Catgut Embedding method in acupuncture

Received May 8; Accepted Jul This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The aim of this review is to estimate the effectiveness and safety of ACE on obesity.


Acupoint catgut embedding therapy with moxibustion reduces the risk of diabetes in obese women

Laurence A. E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide for which conventional therapy efficacy is limited.


Acupuncture and Allergies: Catgut embedding

Contact Catgut Embedding Catgut Embedding method was developed based on the traditional Acupuncture technique where needles are inserted into points just under the skin to help correct and re-balance the flow of energy. Catgut Embedding inserts a piece of catgut thread into an acupuncture point for a couple of weeks to six month duration continuously until the thread is completely disintegrated. Compare to the traditional Acupuncture, this modern method is much more effective with pain relief and treating chronic diseases. Catgut embedding What can catgut embedding do for me?


Acupoint Catgut Embedding for Obesity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The aim of this review is to estimate the effectiveness and safety of ACE on obesity. Improvement rate, reduction of body weight and body mass index BMI , and so forth were analyzed. Although with poor methodological quality, ACE was superior to manual acupuncture MA , sham, and cupping in improvement rate and presented a better tendency compared with drugs and electroacupuncture EA. Mean values of weight loss by ACE were 1. Mean of BMI reduced to 0.

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