However, once a product is established, minimum values of separation force can be determined and agreed to by producer and consumer and both can monitor to assure maintenance of the agreed-upon minimum value. Concrete, Asphalt and Rock. Glossary of Materials Testing Terms. How can we help you? Separate by hand a sufficient distance along the separation line in the center of the strip to permit the grips of the machine to be attached.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
Scope 1. They are applicable only when the adhered surfaces are approximately plane or uniformly circular as in belting, hose, tire carcasses, or rubber-covered sheet metal. The values given in parentheses are for information only. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Referenced Documents 2. Current edition approved Dec. Published February Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D — Summary of Test Method 3. The numerical value of the adhesion is expressed as 1 the average force required to cause separation at a de? In the machine test method, the rate of separation is? With the static-mass test method, either 1 or 2 can be used, but the latter is preferable and will be here employed.
The acceptable value of adhesion measured will, of course, vary from product to product due to different rubber formulations,? However, once a product is established, minimum values of separation force can be determined and agreed to by Copyright?
Apparatus 5. The supporting frame is of such design that clamps for strip specimens hang on it vertically and that mandrels for ring specimens are supported on it horizontally. The frame has sufficient height to permit the mass carrier to be suspended from the test specimens by means of clamps and to hang freely during the progress of the test.
Provision also is made to support the mandrels so that they revolve freely with minimum friction. Suitable apparatus is shown in Fig. Test Specimens 6. The thickness will vary according to the construction of the article being tested.
The maximum thickness of the specimen is limited to 13 mm 0. To comply with this requirement, slice or buff the specimen. The ply or layer being separated should never be over 6. The technique used in 6. When necessary, or speci? In such cases, remove the portions of that layer remaining outside of the test width to avoid edge constriction during separation.
Remove the excess plies to obtain a thickness of 6 mm 1? Use a knife with an adjustable blade where only the desired depth of cut 2 mm of blade is exposed. Procedure 7. Separate the parts to be tested by hand at one end of the strip specimen and at a sufficient distance to permit the jaws of the testing clamp to be attached.
Suspend the strip from the supporting frame by the separated end, holding in the jaws of the testing clamp all separated ends except the one under test. Attach to the lower end of the test specimen a minimum mass sufficient to maintain the strip specimen in approximately a vertical position. Apply a speci? Include the mass of the clamp and carrier in the total mass causing separation.
Separate the parts to be tested sufficiently by hand to permit the jaws of the testing clamp to be attached. With the mandrel resting on the supporting frame, apply a known or speci? Remove the mass and measure the length stripped between marks placed at the beginning and end of the test on the portion other than that stripped. Apparatus 8. A constant rate of extension testing machine satis? Requirements of the testing machine are in 8.
For pendulum-type machines, do not engage pawls that prevent the mass lever from swinging freely. The preferred chart speed is the same as the cross-head speed for ring specimens and one half the cross-head speed for strip specimens. For ring specimens, replace the grip attached to the recording head of the machine with a freely rotating mandrel with an outside diameter substantially the same as the inside diameter of the ring specimen.
Mount the mandrel so that its axis of rotation is in the plane of the ply being separated and the applied force is normal to the tangent of the ring circumference at the line of separation. These rates are to be uniform throughout the tests.
Test Specimens 9. Procedure Separate the parts to be tested by hand at one end of the test specimen and at a sufficient distance to permit grips of the machine to be attached. Attach the separated end of the specimen, with all separate parts except the one under test securely gripped, to the recording head by means of a clamp, using care to adjust it symmetrically in order that the tension shall be distributed uniformly. Provide for maintaining the strip during the test approximately in the plane of the clamps.
This may be done either by attaching the minimum mass required to the free end of the specimen or by holding the specimen against a plate attached to the stationary clamp but, in either case, take into account the added mass in determining the force causing separation. Grip that layer of the specimen of which the adhesion is to be tested symmetrically and?
Adjust the autographic mechanism and chart to zero and start the machine. Peel along the previously cut separation layer for 40 to mm 11? Place the specimen snugly on the test mandrel. With the mandrel attached to the recording head of the machine and the separated layer gripped symmetrically and? During the test, the mandrel shall rotate freely so as to maintain the line of separation at all times approximately in the same position.
Precautions In case of repeated tearing when using the machine test method, take as the result of the test the average load at which tearing of the substrate rubber occurs. Elevating the temperature causes a 4 faster rate of stripping under a given load. Interpretation of Results Small increments in mass do not progressively cause proportional increases in rate of separation. With increasing mass the rate increases slowly at? Rate of separation must therefore be interpreted carefully.
A specimen required to separate not more than 0. The same specimen might not strip at all under a force of 67 N 15 lbf and might meet the requirement with a force of 80 N 18 lbf. The test, however, indicates that the strength of adhesion exceeds the strength of the material and that the adhesion value is not less than the result obtained.
In cases of tearing, the results should be so designated. The adhesion value of one ply to another is taken as the average result of the test over a reasonable distance of separation. When possible, a distance of separation of at least mm 4 in. Calculation Include both the rate and the actual width in the report. The force so indicated, expressed in newtons per metre or pounds-force per inch is divided by the width measured in Report Precision and Bias Keywords Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
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Zulkir Give one of our application engineers a call today for help with creating the best zstm and testing plan according to ASTM D Type C is for ring specimens. Onsite Training At Wstm Facility. This ensures that the line of tensile force remains concentric with the grip body. Software for Series Systems. The dual — acting design of series grips means that jaw faces can be adjusted to accommodate different specimen thicknesses. How can we help you?