The first reaction produced benzoin by using the thiamine hydrochloride catalyst, followed by an oxidation reaction to produce benzil, and a rearrangement to synthesize benzilic acid. By utilizing crystallization, pure solid products of each step were collected and analyzed through IR, NMR spectroscopy, and other physical properties. Introduction Multistep synthesis reactions involve many advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages include time-consuming experiments, error within intermediate steps, or the presence of side reactions. Advantages imply the production of ideal, marketable end products, and the synthesis of compounds that otherwise could not be produced through a simple reaction. Research has enhanced the sustainability, time efficiency, and design of multistep synthesis reactions to be utilized in many industrial situations.
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In addition, this converted alpha diketone was then subjected to rearrangement to a carboxylate salt, then acidification, to produce an alpha-hydroxyacid. In this experiment, benzoin was used and converted into benzil, which was then used to synthesize benzillic acid. The yields were not ideal:. Stop Using Plagiarized Content.
Get Essay g of benzil- a The matching melting points and IR readings, however, confirmed a high degree of purity for each compound: Multistep syntheses are essential to producing complex molecules.
This experiment illustrated the importance of verifying intermediary products are pure, by utilizing different techniques such as IR and melting point. Below is a diagram of the overall reaction. First Reaction: Second Reaction: Introduction: The multistep reaction from Benzoin to Benzillic acid involves multiple organic chemistry concepts, such as oxidation and rearrangement.
The first part of the experiment involves the oxidation of benzoin to benzil, utilizing a mild oxidating agent. The process of oxidation is used in all organic chemistry labs and is essential to a wide variety of synthesis reactions. In addition, oxidation reactions are essential in the the biochemistry of most living organisms.
This experiment also breaks down oxidizing agents into selective and non-selective agents. The second part of this experiment involves the rearrangement of benzil to benzillic acid or, more generally, the reaction of an alpha-diketone to an alpha-hydroxyacid.
This reaction was first conducted by Justus von Liebig in 1. The basics of this reaction involve the formation of a carboxylate salt from an alpha-diketone; acid is then added to produce an aromatic alpha-hydroxyacid.
The reaction conducted in this experiment is an essential base step in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and certain hallucinogenic drugs. The synthesis of Benzil from Benzoin is shown below: The above reaction shows the condensed oxidation of benzoin to benzil. The following diagram shows the condensed reaction of benzil to benzillic acid. Rearrangement occurs to form a salt, then the salt is acidified to form benzillic acid. Once the products of each step were obtained- benzil and benzillic acid- their melting points and IR readings were obtained.
These two measurements were used to prove that the correct product was formed without any impurities. One of the major risks in this experiment is loss of product through multiple filtrations.
To minimize this problem, the filtration steps should be carefully and slowly executed. This ensures that the least amount of reactants are lost. To avoid this, the solutions should be given ample time to cool to room temperature before adding the solutions to an ice bath.
These precautions were taken to try to reach our goal of a high percent yield of product with little to no impurities. The first technique was crystallization which was useful to obtain a solid product that can then be purified.
Another old technique utilized was filtration, via hirsch funnel and vacuum. This technique was used to obtain a purified product, removing impurities. Once the final solid product was obtained in both reactions the melting point procedure was used to determine the level of remaining impurity of the final product, comparing the experimental and expected values found in literature. In conjunction with the melting point procedure, infrared spectroscopy was used to reveal the different functional groups of the products.
In other words, the IR machine indicates whether our final product matches up with the desired one, matching carbonyl and alcohol absorption peaks or the lack thereof to their theoretical presence either benzil or benzillic acid. Procedure: 1. The mixture was then heated in a 70 degree Celsius water bath, while stirred, for one hour. The mixture in the conical vial was then cooled to room temperature and, using a pipette, the solution was transferred to a beaker containing 4ml of ice water.
The mixture slowly crystallized in the beaker and the crystallized product was filtered on a hirsch funnel with vacuum. Once the solid was dissolved completely, the solution was allowed to cool to room temperature. Once yellow crystals formed, the solution was placed into an ice bath. The product was then collected and filtered again on a hirsch funnel with vacuum.
The solution in the conical vial was then heated to about degrees celsius until the benzil dissolved. The mixture was then heated to degrees for 15 minutes, then allowed to slowly cool to room temperature. The product was transferred with a pipette to a 10ml beaker and cooled in an ice bath for 15 minutes. The crystals were collected on a hirsch funnel and washed with 4ml of cold ice water.
The crystals were dried and collected for final mass, percent yield, melting point, and IR reading. Note that the yield from part 1 was not the same amount used at the start of part 2. Also shown: the converted molar quantity of each mass and corresponding percent yield for the two synthesized compound, as well as their experimental and theoretical melting points and percent discrepancy between these values.
The yield, itself, was not used in the second part of this experiment: the synthesis of benzilic acid from benzil. Additionally, this alternative product was the one used in determining a melting point. Graph 1 illustrates the successful oxidation of benzil, as the alcohol has been eliminated. Graph 2 also presents a successful synthesis, as a relatively strong and somewhat broad peak appears around cm-1, suggesting the reemergence of an alcohol and potential presence of the carboxylic acid; that the peak at cm-1 remains strong, confirms his.
Though not in the desired quantities, a product of benzil was obtained from benzoin and that of benzoic acid from benzil. The initial step, synthesis of benzil, resulted in a yield of The synthesis may have called for a second, more thorough recrystallization to appeal this yield.
The recrystallization was performed correctly; however, the mixture was likely not allowed to cool at an ideally slow rate. It was removed from the hot plate and, shortly thereafter, transferred to the ice bath- likely, before it had calmed to room temperature. This could have interrupted the ability for the product to crystallize without impurities being trapped within its lattice.
During the second portion of this experiment, a known, pure quantity of benzil was used to synthesize a This small yield is likely also due to factors similar to the aforementioned. Additionally, the recorded yield was shared from another synthesis; the original synthesis performed yielded too small and impure an amount of product to effectively determine a melting point and I.
This failure may certainly be attributed to an error during the recrystallization, prior to the initial filtration. Proper care was taken to allow the solution to cool very slowly during this second recrystallization. Unfortunately, once the solution was transferred to the ice bath, a large chunk of ice crystals somehow fell over the lip of the flask and into the mixture.
Synthesis of benzilic acid from benzoin
Reaction mechanism[ edit ] The reaction is a representative of 1,2-rearrangements. The long-established reaction mechanism was first proposed in its entirety by Christopher Kelk Ingold , and has been updated with in silico data  as outlined below. The reaction is second order overall in terms of rate, being first order in diketone and first order in base. A hydroxide anion attacks one of the ketone groups in 1 in a nucleophilic addition to form the alkoxide 2. The next step requires a bond rotation to conformer 3 which places the migrating group R in position for attack on the second carbonyl group. This migration step is rate-determining. This sequence resembles a nucleophilic acyl substitution.
Benzilic acid rearrangement
Multistep Synthesis of Benzilic Acid